Ghana’s attempt in the 1960s to transform its economic structure through import-substitution industries (ISI) failed because of political patronage and inefficient management. The past experience has made many senior technocrats, policy makers and intellectuals fixated on State retreat from direct participation in productive sectors, to be replaced by the private sector. At best, government is asked to provide an enabling environment. Since 2010, it appears local governments have gone beyond ending governments to directly rejuvenate a hitherto minor and now moribund industrial sector, establishing new manufacturing companies partner-ships with local and international investors. The 1D1F industrial programme is a bold initiative of the government to regenerating local industrialization. By early 2019, a total of 181 industries under 1D1F were in various stages of construction or completion.At the local level, because industrial policies in sup-port of productive sectors failed in the past, many stakeholders have adopted a wait-and-see attitude.