MSc. Environmental Science, Policy and Management

MSc. Environmental Science, Policy and Management

1.0 Faculty                             :           Faculty of Local Government Administration

2.0 Programme Name           :           MSc Environmental Science, Policy and Management

3.0 Duration                           :           Two Years                                                          

4.0 Background

 

Concerns for the environment have gained ascendancy in the light of its speed of deterioration and the concomitant adverse effect on the social, health, and economic dimensions of society. All over the world, environmental problems have manifested in the pollution and degradation of natural habitats, and in the disposal of waste generated by human activities. Although science and management techniques to mitigate these environmental problems and the concomitant policy frameworks and legal regimes have evolved to the point where there is increased capacity to deal with the problems, such technical knowledge, policy frameworks and legal regimes are not equally accessible. There is a dearth of such technical, policy ands legal capacity in developing countries leading to a situation of lax environmental standards and destructive social practices. Hitherto, obtaining such capacity could only be gained in developed countries, a situation that glossed over critical local contextual issues. Given the critical role of environmental managers and policy makers in the sustainable management of nature and in the mitigation of human activities that adversely impact the environment, there is the need to build such capacity locally. The Masters programme in Environmental Science, Policy and Management is a two-year post-graduate course designed as a response to these concerns.

 

5.0 Justification for the Programme

 

The programme is designed to prepare students to identify, develop and implement effective solutions to environmental challenges, with particular emphasis on developing country contexts. The programme aims to generate understanding of the scientific principles underlying environmental changes and stimulate the requisite social, economic, legal and policy capacity for practicing and potential decision-makers in central and local government, as well as corporate businesses, and other non-state organizations.

 

It offers a comprehensive and multidisciplinary curriculum in environmental studies that challenge students' ability to integrate theory and practice for systematic analysis, holistic understanding, and management of key environmental issues in various social contexts.

 

Above all the programme would ensure that institutions which who are involved in teaching environmental courses would have enough specialist in the field.

 

With these dimensions in view, our syllabus and combination of subjects are devised to produce the technocrats to the service the nation and the general public.

 

6.0       Aims and Objectives

The objectives of the programme are to

  • Empower students with skills for translating environmental knowledge into policy frameworks and management strategies.
  • Strengthen the capacity of students through the development of appropriate research, communication and other professional skills,
  • Systematically elaborate a participatory instructional approach by which lecturers and students will interact for effective learning and cross-learning
  • Equip students to improve their analytical thinking in the assessment of environmental impacts of human activities
  • Develop the students’ professional attitudes, the interpersonal and entrepreneurial skills required by practitioners in the environmental management industry

7.0 Admission Requirements and Target Group:

It is aimed at middle and senior level functionaries and policy practitioners working in the public or private sectors as well as at international, regional, national or local levels. In addition the course is open to prospective students with career interests in the subject of environmental science, policy and management. This includes people working in corporate sector, civil society and non-governmental organisations. The course is also open to researchers and faculty in academia aspiring for careers or with research interest in the subject. Candidates applying for the Masters programme in Environmental Science, Policy and Management should have an undergraduate degree – preferably Geography, Natural Resources, Agricultural Science, Biological Sciences, Planning, Civil Engineering, Economics and other related courses – Applicants to the programme must have a First or Second Class (Lower Division) honours degree from a recognized university/tertiary institution or an equivalent approved by the Institute.

8.0 Career Opportunities

Graduates from this programme will be equipped to address environmental challenges at any level, depending on their specialisation. Following their participation, graduates are well positioned to operate optimally within international and national environmental regulatory bodies, national policy departments and agencies, environmental health departments of local governments, policy think-tanks and civil society advocacy groups as well as serve in advisory capacities for environmentally conscious community- and faith-based organisations.

The course also provides opportunity for those intending to further their training at the doctoral level in any particular specialised aspect of environmental science, policy and management.

9.0 Teaching Approach

The course will be administered through a varied set of teaching approaches with the aim of ensuring an optimal learning environment is created for the participants. Besides the conventional instructional approach, participants shall be involved in and undertake group work, field visits, demonstrations and practice, role playing, seminar presentations, and self-study. The professional experiences of participants and facilitators will be an integral part of the learning and cross-learning by which the course will ensure knowledge diffusion.

 

10.0 Graduation Requirements

  1. Candidates shall pass all courses and obtain minimum total credits of 43.
  2. Candidates shall report a minimum of 4 weeks of internship duly assessed.
  3. Candidates shall attend and pass an oral examination on their thesis.
  4. Complete an Internship
  5. To pass a course, a student must obtain a minimum of 50% of the marks available and an average of 55% for all courses.

 

 

 

11.0 Programme Structure 

Students are required to undertake internship, workshops and a research dissertation. In addition to these, students will be required to complete 8 core courses and four electives for the academic year broken into two semesters.

 

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

T

P

C

ESPM 501      

Biodiversity & Conservation

2

3

3

ESPM 503      

Environmental Thought and Policy

3

0

3

ESPM 505

Sustainable Development, Environmental Planning & Management

3

0

3

ESPM 509

Environmental Management and GIS

2

3

3

 

 

 

 

 

2 ELECTIVES

 

6

0

6

 

TOTAL CREDITS

16

6

18

YEAR ONE: SEMESTER ONE- CORE COURSES

 

YEAR ONE: SEMESTER ONE- ELECTIVE COURSES

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

T

P

C

ESPM 511

Energy Production, Use & Conservation

3

0

3

ESPM 513            

International Environmental Law 

3

0

3

ESPM 515           

Environmental Economics and Valuation

3

0

3

ESPM 527

Environments, Business and Society

3

0

3

ESPM 539 

Environmental Strategies at the Local Level

3

0

3

ESPM 504

Principles of Environmental Justice

3

0

3

ESPM 525

Water Resources & the Hydrological Cycle

3

0

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

T

P

C

ESPM 502   

Climate Change

3

0

3

ESPM 533

Environmental Policy Frameworks & Legal Reforms in Ghana 

3

0

3

ESPM 506

Environmental Assessment 

3

0

3

ESPM 508

Research Methods

3

3

4

2 ELECTIVES

 

 

6

0

6

 

Total Credits

18

3

19

YEAR ONE:  SEMESTER TWO- CORE COURSES

 

 

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

T

P

C

ESPM 529

Waste Management  

2

3

3

ESPM  531           

Marine Ecosystems

2

3

3

ESPM 535            

Gender and Environment 

3

0

3

ESPM 537

Wildlife Resource Management 

3

0

3

ESPM 541

Tourism and Environment

3

0

3

ESPM 545

Wetlands Management 

3

0

3

ESPM 510

Environment & GIS II

2

3

3

ESPM 547

Environment and GIS III

2

3

3

ESPM 543           

Soil and Coastal Erosion

3

0

3

ESPM 519

Contamination and Remediation

3

0

3

ESPM 523            

Sectoral Management Strategies

3

0

3

ESPM 521

Environment and Politics

3

0

3

YEAR ONE:  SEMESTER TWO- ELECTIVE COURSES

 

 

 

 

 

 

YEAR TWO (SEMESTER ONE AND TWO)

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

T

P

C

ESP 550

Thesis

0

36

12

ESP 552

Internship

0

12

4

ESP 554

Study trips/Workshops

0

12

4

 

Total Credits

0

60

20

 

12.0 DESCRIPTION OF COURSES

 

  1. Core courses

ESPM 501 Biodiversity and Conservation                                                      (2, 3, 3)

Conserving the Earth's remaining biodiversity is one of the most important challenges facing humanity. However, there are no easy solutions because biodiversity conservation has to operate in complex socio-economic, political, cultural and institutional environments. Successful conservation practitioners must span academic disciplines and combine advanced social skills with intellectual rigour. They also need to work effectively in both a conventional office environment and some of the most inhospitable places on the planet. This course develops knowledge and critical understanding of conservation and biodiversity science and practice, and the socio-economic, political, cultural and institutional environments within which policy and management decisions are made.

Objectives:

The course will provide students with:

  • Knowledge to understand global biodiversity, genetic, species, ecosystem diversity global biodiversity
  • Both theoretical and practical knowledge to appraise social, ethical and policy issues surrounding biodiversity.
  • Skills to examine current threats associated with biodiversity.

Key topics:

  • Definition and measurement of biodiversity
  • Rates of biodiversity loss
  • Socio-economic aspects of biodiversity
  • Integrated pollution control
  • National biodiversity policy
  • Extinction threats
  • Over-exploitation
  • Sustainability
  • Biogeography

 

ESPM 503 Environmental Thought and Policy                                         (3, 0, 3)

The intellectual basis through which the debate on the environment has evolved is very critical for aspiring and practicing policy makers and researchers in environmental science, policy and management. This course is a foundational building block in the programme that draws attention to the ideas, concepts, theories, principles, arguments, outcomes, milestones, the movements and their underlying dispositions that have emerged in the trajectory of the main thoughts surrounding the environment. It exposes students to the leading thinkers on the environment as well as the debate encounters that have shaped considerations of the environment.

 

Key topics

 

The course shall treat the following topics among others;

  • Evolution of Environmental concepts and policies
  • The Environmental Management Processes Law
  • Environmental policy formulation process
  • Process and procedure for implementing Environmental Policy
  • Monitoring and Evaluating Environmental Policy implementation Process
  • Principal Subjects of International Environmental Law.

 

Objectives:

At the end of the course, students must be in a position to

  • Articulate their own environmental values within the framework of the evolving paradigms
  • Discuss the link between rights and the environment
  • Debate the goals of environmental policy within the framework of the principles and philosophy of environmental consciousness.

 

ESPM 505 Sustainable Development and Environmental Planning and Management (3,0,3)

The issues concerning the environment are not purely scientific but rely also on planning and management. They are part of corporate vision, mission, and strategy which need to be effectively planned to remain competitive.   The purpose of this course is to introduce environmental planning and management in the Ghana.  It therefore explores the nature of the inter-relationship between environmental systems and human systems, and examines the complexity of environmental policy, planning and management. 

For the past years there has been growing consensus of the importance of sustainable development for the preservation of the humankind and the environment and that the major challenges for sustainable development are how to: reduce poverty, Double available food without excessive use of synthetic chemicals, conserve  of natural habitats,  reduce the degradation of marginal lands, Provide energy services without environmental degradation, Provide access to water to meet basic needs, and Develop healthy urban environments. This course explores the concepts and approaches of sustainable development.

 

Objectives:

At the end of the course, students will be exposed to conceptual knowledge on sustainable development that will help them to:

  • Examine policy responses to environmental problems caused by economic development with special attention to innovation.
  • Understand the role of theory in sustainable development.
  • Examine institutional theory and governance – how the plurality of interests is transformed into coordinated action and the compliance of actors is achieved.
  • Evaluate and present a range of options and alternatives using environmental planning concepts for the prevention or remediation of environmental problems of pollution, deforestation, erosion, loss of wetlands, habitat fragmentation, and climate change

Key Topics:

  • Sustainable Livelihoods Approach and poverty
  • Sustainable development
  • Societal transformations
  • Institutional theory
  • Governance for sustainable development
  • Capacity development for innovation
  • Environmental management will be addressed in relation to economic development and poverty alleviation.
  • A number of policy implementation tools will be introduced such as environmental information management systems, valuation of natural resources and economic policy tools, and environmental impact assessment.
  • Policy enforcement and compliance will be discussed as an essential element in achieving environmental policy goals.

 

 

ESPM 509 Environmental Management and GIS I                                  (2, 3, 3)

Environmental management plays a key role in sustaining human economic activity and well-being or improved human quality of life. The environment must be protected for its own inherent worth and especially to leave a legacy of fully functioning natural resources for generations yet unborn.

Sustainable environmental management is important because it refers to activities of humans which have direct impact on the environment as a whole. It presumed that, those activities will continue in perpetuity and therefore right strategies must be adopted to effectively manage it. It is a term that attempts to balance the often conflicting ideals of economic growth and maintaining environment al quality and viability.

The three interacting components required for successful natural resource and environmental management, namely policy, participation and information are especially critical in less developed countries where infrastructure is often rudimentary

A model is an abstraction or simplification of reality (Odum 1975, Jeffers 1978, Duer et al. 1979). When models are applied to the environment it is anticipated that insights about the physical, biological and socio-economic system may be derived.

Models may also prediction and simulation of future conditions both in space and time. The reason to build models is to understand and ultimately manage a sustainable system.

Objectives:

The objective of this module is to equip students with the necessary tools in GIS and Remote Sensing to be able to create and analyze modes as far as environmental spatial information systems is concerned.

Students will be introduced to the various components of natural environment such as biological diversity, water quality, soil, while simultaneously maintain human welfare for  example provision of food, housing  and sanitation.

GIS and Remote Sensing will be employed to derive models necessary for predictions and forecast of natural occurrences. It is also anticipated that students will be introduced to Open Source GIS.

Key topics:

  • Introduction to GIS and Remote Sensing
  • Open Source and GIS
  • Application of GIS and remote sensing in environment management
  • Spatial information system and modeling
  • Use of Geoinformation and environmental monitoring
  • Extreme weather events-techniques for modelling nature hazards
  • Geoinformation and environmental impact assessment (IES)
  • Environmental project management

 

ESPM 502 Climate Change                                                             (3, 0, 3)

Climate change is one of the most important issues facing society presently and in the future. The social and economic cost of climate change is estimated to be very high compelling the urgent need for developing the requisite technical knowledge, research skills and policy awareness to combat the envisaged adverse impacts. Reducing the occurrence of climate change and adapting to climate changes will require difficult decisions about the way the economy and society are structured - locally, nationally and internationally. Underlying these requirements is a question of the science of climate change. This will be the basis of this course as students are introduced to the scientific conditions generating the current discussions of climate change. In addition students will also be introduced to the science behind the actions that potentially can remedy the adverse impact of climate change.

Objectives:

 To endow candidates with critical thinking and analytical skills to:

  • Understand climate change processes and their direct and indirect interactions with development.
  • Explore possible mitigation and adaptation responses to the risks associated with climate change.

 

Key Topics: 

Structure and composition of the atmosphere; 

Causes of climate change and variability and the greenhouse effect;

Current issues and approaches to climate change vulnerability,

Adaptation and mitigation;

Ethical issues of science in climate change debates;

Introduction to domestic policy instruments for climate change mitigation and adaptation;  Case studies of climate policies, from Ghana and other countries.

Learning approaches:  lectures, group work, and field excursions. 

 

ESPM 533 Environmental Policy Frameworks and Legal Reforms in Ghana (3, 0, 3)

It is believed that a healthy environment is necessary for the well-being of society, our people and our business, and is the foundation for a sustainable and strong economy. It is also recognized that diverse, healthy natural resources - fresh water, oceans, air, forests, grasslands, and agro-systems - are a critical component of social and sustainable economic development. Forests are particularly important for the environment and biodiversity. They are vital to water and air quality, and help regulate climates. Forests are home to thousands of wildlife species, and, at the same time, represent a natural source of timber. The key challenge for society is to manage the competing human demands on land, soil and vegetation without undermining crucial ecosystem functions.

This course provides an overview of key issues in global and national environmental policy. The course outlines the legal, regulatory and institutional framework that guides the built and natural environment in Ghana. Students will be exposed to the policy and legislative framework governing environmental issues that are enforced by the Ghana Environmental Protection Agency which include Environmental Protection Agency Act (Act 490), Environmental Assessment Regulations and Pesticides Control and Management Act 1996 (Act 528). Arguably existing legal and policy frameworks are not always or entirely adequate to resolving key challenges of the environment. As a result, understanding the prerequisites for reforming prevailing environmental legislative and institutional frameworks is becoming critical in recent times. Besides there is an increasing need to enhance the awareness of practitioners and policy makers of the imperatives for translating international laws and conventions into local frameworks. The demand for such interpretative skills is further complicated by the need to abstract critical contextual factors in order for such international laws to be relevant. The course will thus equip students with knowledge of the Ghana’s prevailing environmental policy framework and enable them to comprehend the tools and processes required for interpreting and translating international environmental regimes and undertaking institutional reforms.

 

 

 

Objectives:

At the end of the course, students will be

  • Aware of the policy, legal and institutional framework for environmental management prevailing in Ghana
  • Capable of assessing the adequacy of the prevailing regulatory system governing environmental management in Ghana
  • Knowledgeable in institutional reform agendas, common pool resource theory and international regime theory as they apply to the Ghanaian context,
  • Understand the role of science in international and national environmental politics both in theory and in practice in Ghana

 

Key topics

  • Environmental policy framework of Ghana
  • Institutionalization of environmental management in Ghana
  • Legal and policy reform
  • Localising international policy conventions
  • The informal sector in Ghana and the Environment
  • Climate change and the local environment

 

ESPM 506 Environmental Assessment                                                      

Urban lifestyles characterized by high consumption levels, exuberant use of natural resources, excessive production of waste, a widening gap between rich and poor, and rapid growth of the global human population pose a major problem for the future survival of our species. Urban development must therefore meet the needs of the present generations without compromising the needs of future generations. Putting this goal into practice remains a major challenge. This course introduces students to "sustainability assessment," a new concept that aims to help in steering societies in a more sustainable direction, and applies this concept to cities. It deals with practical ways to reach a more sustainable state in urban areas through such tools as strategic environmental assessment, sustainability assessment, direction analysis, baseline setting and progress measurement, sustainability targets, and ecological footprint analysis. With these tools, humans can maintain or improve the health, productivity, and quality of their lives in harmony with nature. Environmental assessment is a procedure that ensures that the environmental implications of decisions are taken into account before the decisions are made. The process involves an analysis of the likely effects on the environment, recording those effects in a report, undertaking a public consultation exercise on the report, taking into account the comments and the report when making the final decision and informing the public about that decision afterwards.

The course provides essential knowledge in utilizing contemporary assessment tools including environmental impact assessment (EIA), Sectoral impact assessment, strategic environmental assessment (SEA), health impact assessment (HIA). Students will be introduced to the various stages of these tools.

Objectives:

At the end of this course students will

  • Appreciate the means of anticipating the environmental effects of a proposed action.
  • Be equipped on the approaches to framing and resolving problems at the interface of the environment and human activities.
  • Be able to appropriately apply the different tools indifferent circumstances.

 

 

ESPM 508 Research Methods I                                                       (2, 3, 3)

Students on the programme require effective research skills and knowledge of different methods for the project work component of the course as well as for their professional lives. Therefore, the objective of this module is that by the end of the programme, students would have been acquainted with the different dimensions of research in environmental management and policy and exposed to the issues in and methods for conducting relevant research.

Objectives:

Students will be equipped with the skills to:

  • Conduct both qualitative and quantitative research in environmental management and policy issues.
  • Apply rigours research findings to solve practical environmental management and policy problems.

Key Topics:

  • Purposes, types and issues in research in environmental management and policy making
  • Framing a research: problem identification and framing; philosophical and methodological issues; selecting a framework of analysis, an analytical model; objectives setting; formulating research questions and hypothesis; sampling techniques
  • Types of data, their uses and sources: quantitative data; qualitative data; secondary data; primary data
  • Methods of data collection including
    • literature and secondary data identification using electronic search engines;
    • conduct of surveys;
    • qualitative methods including interviewing, participant observation, consultations, rapid appraisals and participatory techniques (focus group discussions, social maps, listings, rankings and scoring, time-lines, seasonality analysis, trend analysis, cause-impact diagrams/flow diagrams, case studies, community score cards/community voice cards, community walks amongst others
  • Preparation of data-gathering instruments (DGI): questionnaires, checklists, matrices
  • Data Analysis: Cleaning and coding of data
    • Quantitative analysis using various statistical packages
    • Qualitative analysis
    • Presentation of data.
    • The role of validation workshops in data analysis
  • Research report writing

The module will be taught through a variety of teaching/learning approaches including lectures, practical exercises, small group discussions and case studies. Students will be encouraged to apply the skills and knowledge provided to their own work. Assessment will be on the basis of how the knowledge provided has been applied.

 

  1. Elective courses

 

ESPM 511 Energy Production, Use and Conservation                 (3, 0, 3)

The energy sector is one of the most polluting sectors and at the same time one of the most capital intensive of any economy. Yet energy is arguably the most critical input for economic and social development, for which reason, its production and use is pursued, often, without regard to its impacts on the environment. Increasingly, many countries desire energy sufficiency using methods and technologies that strain the environment and consequently international relations significantly. This creates tensions and challenges within the energy – environment nexus. An environmental expert or manager can not deal with the energy–environment nexus without understanding how the sector functions from planning of the infrastructure, use of the outputs, and management of the pollution that is generated. Even more important is the need to identify new sources of energy that are sustainable and renewable given the finite quantum of most of the conventional energy sources. Renewable energy, driven by the quest for sustainability, supports the configuration of a new framework that delivers a harmonious relationship within the energy – environment nexus.

This course reviews the energy sector in relation to the environmental problems caused by the production, transport, storage and use of different forms of energy. Urban areas are the major consumers of energy in most countries as it is required by urban-based industries, services, households and modes of transportation. This course presents an overview of the energy sector by first explaining its importance in the framework of economic development. The course further gives consideration to the structure of energy production and consumption. The role and possibilities of energy demand management and energy conservation are reviewed within the context of the sector’s structure and planning. Simulation exercises will be undertaken to enhance students appreciation of the complexities involved in planning and demand management. The critical aspects of energy in the context of the urban environment as well as environmental impacts of energy at the various stages of production and use are then treated. The theories underlining pollution mitigation measures in energy production and use will be discussed. Finally the course will utilise case studies from different regions to draw students’ attention to the need and potential for innovations in energy use.

Objectives:

  • The objective of this course is to introduce the energy sector and its structure and rationalise its importance for national development.
  • It is intended that students will become aware of the planning methodologies associated with different types of energy sources and uses.
  • Students will be equipped to adequately engage in the theoretical debates within the energy sector as well as to become effective advocates of environmentally-aware good practice of energy production and use.

 

Key Topics:

  • Overview of Energy Resources
  • Energy Usage
  • Electricity Generation
  • Renewable Energy
  • Demand Management in the Built Environment

 

 

ESPM 513 International Environmental Law                                           (3, 0, 3)

This course introduces students to the principles, rules and features of international laws and conventions that set norms for global subscription. The course also discusses international and national legal processes involved in resolving environmental disputes, including the principles guiding relevant actions to be taken, the principles and rules underlying environmental problems. The interrelationship between various legal regimes as well as the charters of the various international development and regulatory agencies such as the UN, IMO, IAEA, and the World Bank are discussed. The regimes of environmental governance set up under various regional agencies such as the European Union, the African Union, and ECOWAS are also addressed.

Key Topics

Students will be introduced to areas such as;

  • General Principles of International Environmental Law
  • The institutional structure of international environmental Governance
  • The role of the United Nations   and  other  Non Governmental Organizations, individuals and indigenous groups in the Environmental management process
  • State responsibility for environmental damage including the 2001 Articles of state responsibility and the 1969 Vienna Convention.
  • From Stockholm to Copenhagen through Rio, Johannesburg and Kyoto – A historical development of international environmental laws, policies and conventions
  • The International Standards Organisation (ISO)

 

Objectives:

  • Appreciate the existing traditional dispute settlement procedures and their usefulness in environmental justice
  • Analyze and advise policy makers on the civil liability regimes and assess their importance as a means of achieving international protection of the environment.
  • Be equipped with issues on trade and the Environment from the point of compatibility of multilateral Agreements and within the provisions of the World Trade Organisation (WTO)

 

ESPM 515 Environmental Economics and Valuation                              (3, 0, 3)

The subject of environmental economics is at the forefront of environmental debate: the environment can no longer be viewed as an entity separate from the economy. This calls for the need to analyze contemporary environmental issues from the point of view of economic effects and their consequences for human well-being. There is the need to understand the economic importance of environmental degradation and the economic causes of degradation as well as design economic incentives to slow, halt, or reverse that degradation. The course is intended to address these pressing issues.

Objectives:

  • To introduce students to key contemporary issues in environmental economics
  • Equip students with tools and methodologies to analyse and address environmental problems in an economic framework.

Key topics

  • Environmental resources; classification of environmental resources, environmental degradation.
  • environmental resource survey and land evaluation leading to land use planning

 

  • Soil survey: soil classification, soil mapping, soil monitoring
  • Climate, forests, water etc survey: agroclimatology, water resources assessment, forest resource assessment etc.
  • The theory of dynamically efficient resource markets;
  • The economics of market allocation;
  • Reasons for market failure and inefficient resource use (monopolies, imperfect information on quality, safety, etc government failures, inequity, externalities);
  • The concept of property rights:
  • Common pool resources; public goods.
  • Theory of efficiency-enhancing policy interventions (Pigovian Taxes (Environmental Taxes), Environmental Regulations (Standards), Bargaining solution (Coase solution), Conservation

 

ESPM 527 Environments, Business and Society                            (3, 0, 3)

Local governance involves stakeholders taking joint responsibility organizing their way of life in local jurisdictions, including optimally nurturing, mobilising, safe-guarding and allocating the resources available to their populations. In the exercise of this mandate, staff of local authorities are required to provide appropriate support to assemblies on how to maintain an effective relationship between local economic development and sustainable environments in dynamic social contexts. This course will therefore be devoted to examining the links between the environment, business and societal life and provide students with the opportunity to develop insights into how these can be effectively managed.

Key topics

Amongst other topics, the course will explore theoretical and conceptual frameworks relating to society, social values, norms and socio-cultural practices and environmental management (including such models as the tragedy of the commons). Furthermore the course will interrogate

  • Traditional and informal economic activities and their links to and implications for local environment such as farming, agro-processing, fuel production, non-timber forest products;
  • management of natural and environmental resources for domestic and community life
  • current challenges and topical issues in environmental management
  • large, formal private sector undertakings and sustainable environmental management using extractive industries as a particular focus (mineral, timber, oil) and relations between local elites, local authorities, concessionaires and local populations;
  • emerging economic initiatives and the environment including those arising from the tourism, information communication technology
  • the roles and responsibilities of local authorities and different stakeholders in environmental management for local community and business life
  • Partnership modalities for environmental management.

 

Objectives:

Upon completion of this course, students will be in a position to

  • Lead discussions on the necessary changes in socio-cultural and institutional practices for improving environmental management
  • Determine the requisite tools for implementing policy and organisational reforms for achieving positive results in environmental management
  • Manage the tensions between environment and development on the basis of the longer term imperative for sustainability

 

ESPM 539 Environmental Strategies at the Local Level                          (3, 0, 3)

The National Environmental Policy-1988; the Environmental Sanitation Policy-1999 (Revised 2007-Draft); the Environmental Protection Agency Act-1994; the Environmental Assessment Regulations-1999; the Local Government Act-1993; the National Building Regulations-1996; the Water Resources Commission Act-1996 and the various byelaws of the District/Municipal/Metropolitan Assemblies (MMDAs) provide a policy and legal framework for environmental management in Ghana. In addition to the above policies and legislations, the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development, the EPA and the Ministry of Health have prepared guidelines/standards for environmental health management. To this end, there are requirements for MMDAs to adopt environmental management strategies that will be sustainable and effective.  

This course is therefore intended to examine effective strategies for managing environmental concerns at the local level. It also examines the challenges faced by environmental health practitioners in translating policies into actions on the ground. Specifically, the course will:

  • Examine critical environmental issues that have evolved in the recent times
  • Highlight the legal framework and institutional arrangements for effective environmental sanitation and management at the district level
  • Clarify the roles and responsibilities of the functionaries and stakeholders at the local level in the delivery of environmental sanitation and management
  • Examine some strategies for effective environmental management
  • Share experiences on the benefits of environmental sanitation improvements at the district level.

 

 

Objectives:

 

At the end of the course, students will be able to design strategies and generate localized solutions to global and current environmental concerns.

Key topics:

  • Common Facts about the Environment, Environmental Management Concepts
  • Overview of the environmental problem at the local level
  • Key environmental management concepts
  • Environmental Sanitation and Management Issues in Ghana
  • Ineffective public education and communication strategies
  • Issues about land acquisition for public waste disposal;
  • The challenges of financial and material resource mobilisation;
  • The shift of attention has gone to curative instead of the preventive aspect of sanitation;
  • Law enforcement issues and issues of professional workforce including engineers, planners and administrators for planning, management, policy formulation and research
  • Legal Framework for Environmental Management at the District Level
  • Stakeholder Analysis in Environmental Management: A Shared Responsibility
  • Effective Strategies for Environmental Management
    • Environmental Communication and Behaviour Change including education, information and communication; social marketing; advocacy and; community mobilisation
    • Making Political Commitments, Legislations and Regulations
    • Capacity Building for Effective Environmental Management
    • Mobilising Financial Resources for Environmental Management Programmes and Policies
    • Monitoring and Evaluating Progress

 

ESPM 504 Principles of Environmental Justice                            (3, 0, 3)

This course introduces students to the general principles of Environmental Justice and comes in the wake of incidence of dumping in developing countries.  The course will expose students to the existing framework for dispute resolution at the international, national and local levels in accordance with

  • Article 33 of the UN Charter,
  • Article 38 of the Statute of the International Court of Justice(ICJ),

 

In addition, the importance of non compliance procedures in selected treaties such as Kyoto Protocol and the Montreal Protocol shall be discussed.

 

Key Topics

  • General Principles of Environmental Justice
  • Environmental Dispute Resolution
  • Environmental Ethics, Dumping and NIMBY
  • General Principles of conservation of biological diversity
  • Environmental Governance
  • Civil liability regimes (in relation to areas such as nuclear damage, oil and Trans boundary pollution, Waste and transportation etc. The Lugano Convention will be examined in detailed)
  • Human Rights and the Environment
  • Models of social activism and the Environment
  • The paradox of environmentalism

 

 

Objectives:

At the end of the course students would

  • Have the conceptual and analytical skills to determine conditions of environmental injustice and the facilitating conditions of illegal, unreported and unregulated social practices harmful to the environment.
  • Be exposed to war and the Environment by exposing then to the 1977 additional protocol to the 1949 Geneva Conventions.
  • Appreciate the processes involved in environmental justice and the significant role of the United Nations and the International Court of Justice (ICJ).
  • Appreciate the link between human rights and the environment.

 

ESPM 525 Water Resources and the Hydrological Cycle                                    (3, 0, 3)

Water is an essential commodity for the survival of all living things. Water is a vital part of both our environment and our body systems. It covers nearly three quarters of the earth’s surface and makes up between 60% and 70% of the human body matter. Water in essence has no substitute. However, sustainability of our water resources is one of the key problems affecting nations. Floods, droughts, water quality, water-ecosystem and soil-water-climate interactions, and the sustainability of water resources are important issues that need to be addressed in water resources management and hydrology in order to make a significant contribution to achieving sustainable development.

Objectives:

To equip students with theories and concepts of hydrology and the knowledge and skills to:

 Identify, develop and implement strategies or solutions to meet social and environmental challenges in water resource management. 

 Apply hydrologic principles to water related problems.

Bridge the gap in water demand and supply for strategic and integrated water resources management.

 Devise mechanisms and also acquire further insights into surface water and groundwater management.

Key topics:

With the growing effects of climate change and urbanisation, it is imperative that Environmental Managers get the requisite theoretical and practical understanding of water resource management and hydrological systems. Students in this specialization will learn to deal with surface and groundwater, with emphasis on factors affecting water availability and quality, as well as to understand human activities that influence the use, reuse and discharge of water and wastewater into the natural surface water and groundwater pathways. Thus, a comprehension of social, economic and environmental challenges associated with various uses and disposal of water. The various roles of stakeholders in water resource management will be examined.

Students will be introduced to the principles of hydrological cycle and review of main processes, such as precipitation, evaporation and transpiration, runoff and infiltration. Students learn to determine the impact of hydrological extremes on society, and the impacts of society on water resources. They investigate and solve complex problems in hydrology arising from increasing demands on water resources and global changes in environment and climate. At the end of the course, students will be exposed to the use of modeling and other tools for the proper integration of hydrological knowledge and analysis in water resources planning and management. Other topics will include the following:

  • Introduction to the hydrological cycle
  • Climate Change and Water
  • Groundwater and Surface Water
  • Water, the Environment and Society
  • Urbanisation and Water Management
  • Interaction of Water and other sectors
  • Water Resource Modeling
  • Approaches to International Water Resource Management

 

ESPM 529 Waste Management                                                                   (2, 3, 3)

Waste Management is becoming one of the key problems of the modern world, an international issue that is intensified by the volume and complexity of domestic and industrial waste discarded by society. Unfortunately, many of the practices adopted in the past were aimed at short-term solutions without sufficient regard or knowledge for long term implications on human health and the environment and this, in many cases, is leading to the need to take difficult and expensive remedial action.

Objectives:

The course will provide students with:

  • Advanced technical and professional knowledge in waste technology and management in order to meet the requirements expected of modern waste managers working in the industrial, government and consulting sectors.
  • Knowledge of integrated and cross-disciplinary approach to sustainable waste management and its application.
  • Analytical skills that will help them select and apply scientific, technical and engineering principles;
  • Knowledge to assess economic consequences and risks of waste management options;

 

Key Topics:

  • Municipal waste collection, transfer stations, flow and treatment options (case study examples of materials flow)
  • Municipal waste sorting: (transfer stations; materials recovery facilities - design and operation)
  • Thermal treatment: incineration, gasification, combined heat and power, waste to energy, solid recovered fuel (destruction efficiencies, emissions control, heat recovery and co-generation)
  • Integrated waste management: mechanical biological treatment, pre-treatment,
  • Concept of population growth
  • Introduction to hazardous waste
  • Characteristics and composition of waste

The role of international bodies such as the United Nations and the European Commission, as well as national governments, in the development of laws related to the management of wastes.

ESPM 531 Marine Ecosystems                                                                    (2, 3, 3)

Marine resources of the world cover two thirds of the Earth’s surface and play a key role in supporting life on the planet. Marine resources span oceans, seas, rivers, lakes and other bodies living in such bodies. Humans affect marine ecosystems either directly or indirectly, mainly due to global climatic changes. While open oceans are still relatively unaffected by human activities, coastal areas, enclosed and semi-enclosed seas are more and more degraded. Several enclosed water bodies are under so severe threats that require immediate actions to save them before an ecological disaster may occur. The common problems these seas are sharing are lack of effective catchment management, increased pollution and sedimentation, eutrophication, intense over-exploitation of resources, introduction of exotic species, and increased off-shore activities. Fishing is the best-documented human activity that affects marine systems due to over-exploitation of the stocks, by-catches and politically motivated subsidies. The increased human pressure on the ocean and its resources needs special conservation measures and managerial practices to achieve sustainability and put an end to the present destructive activities.

 Objectives:

By the end of this course students will:

  • Have knowledge and understanding about important marine ecosystems and processes.
  • Appreciate historical impacts of past human activities on marine ecosystems.
  • Be aware of how different ecosystems are currently threatened by humans and what options exist for dealing with these problems
  • Understand marine resources management practices, the increasing importance of marine protected areas and present the main regional and international agreements.

 

Key topics:

  • Coral reefs
  • The High Sea:
  • Deep Sea:
  • Fisheries Management:
  • Marine Conservation:

ESPM 535 Gender and Environment                                                         (3, 0, 3)

Gender is a key issue in development programmes and policies, for reasons of both social equity and efficiency. The roles of men and women at the local levels are shifting rapidly due to such factors as the effects of environmental degradation and technology and economic change. An understanding of gender and methods of gender analysis is essential to planning, implementation and evaluation of development processes, especially with the decentralization process being promoted as a tool to effective local governance.

The course promotes the study of the relationship between the environment and the gendered roles in society. Additionally, the gender influences on the natural environment based on structural and ideological relations are examined and the emerging environmental and disaster related challenges (global and local) and impact of these on women would be discussed. The course intends to expose students to ways in which feminist theories can be applied to local and global environmental issues.

The course seeks to explore the inter-relationships between gender oppression and domination of nature, the level of impact environmental degradation has on women and men’s participation in environmental movements. The course would enable students to integrate gender considerations in their environment-related work (research, teaching, facilitation). The course will also study the impact of environmental degradation on women's security, dealing with such themes as access to water, resource governance, and how access to resources such as firewood, food, and property affect education and health.

 Objectives:

The objectives of the course will include to:

  • Provide students with an understanding of gender concepts and tools and the linkages between gender and the environment.
  • Acquaint students with different gender analytical frameworks used in gender and environmental studies
  • Assist students to critically assess the underlying assumptions of contemporary theory and discourse on the environment, on sustainability, and on gender relations
  • Enable students initiate, facilitate, monitor and evaluate development from variety of development disciplines including food security and poverty alleviation.
  • Explore political ecology and diverging discourses on conservation and resource management by analyzing the engendering of international norms and practices.
  • Teach students to critically assess underlying assumptions of contemporary theory and discourse on the environment, on sustainability, and on gender relations.

 

Key Topics:

Issues covered will include:

  • Gender Concepts / Mainstreaming and Analytical tools
  • Gender: Development approaches past and present.
  • Gender issues and environmental changes
  • International Laws instruments as framework for mainstreaming gender in environmental issues.
  • Gender-sensitive strategies for mitigation actions on Environment and Climate Change
  • Sustainable development: Participatory strategies on technology development, transfer and adaptation efforts.
  • Gender sensitive development planning and its implications towards poverty reduction

 

ESPM 537 Wildlife Resource Management                                               (2, 3, 3)

Wildlife resource Management involves the controlling of wildlife populations, both plants and animals, and includes aspects such as park management, education, law enforcement and evaluation. The main goal is the manipulation or protection of populations of plants and animals to achieve a management objective.       

Wildlife resource management is still in the preliminary stages in Ghana and most parts of the developing world. There are a number of problem involved in the management of wildlife. Amongst them include the shooting and killing of wildlife without limitations, logging which has destroyed the forest structure and this in turn affects the animal species inhabiting the area, weakness in the wildlife Enforcement Law, Conservation Act and Mining Act, corruption, smuggling, lack of Nature Study Centres, lack of management research and incomplete information on wildlife, fast clearance of lowland forest for agriculture and mining.

Objectives:    

To equip students with technical knowledge and practical skills for: 

-Assessing wildlife populations; 

-Managing wildlife protected areas; 

-Sustainable utilization of wildlife, biodiversity and habitats for sustainable management; 

-Understanding different tropical plant communities and the environmental factors influencing their development;

-Understanding the relationship and importance of social, political and ecological dimensions for sustainable natural resources conservation 

Key topics:  

  • Population and habitat evaluation, analysis and mapping;
  • Modern concepts of protected areas;
  • Significance of wildlife in local, national and regional economies;
  • Discussion on concepts of ecosystem, natural communities and population ecology; Ecotourism and community development; 
  • Role of government in effective management of wildlife and other natural resources; Sustainability in wildlife utilization;
  • Role of fire and animals on vegetation development.

 

 

ESPM 541 Tourism and Environment                                           (3, 0, 3)

Presently it is widely acknowledged that tourism represents one of the world's largest industries, which can have in-depth impacts (both positive and negative) on natural and cultural environments. This course has been designed to ensure that the long-term future of the tourism industry and the environment is realised through the effective use of tourism planning and sustainable development.

Objectives:

 

At the end of the course students will be equipped with the knowledge and skills to:

 

  • Plan for tourism development, without imposing unnecessary change or damage on the natural and socio-economic and cultural environments of the destination, ie sustainable tourism development.

 

  • Explore the complex relationships between tourism, the environment and development, with particular reference to the developing world.

 

  • Understand the advantages and disadvantages of tourism as a form of development and examines its environmental impact.

 

  • Examine possible ways of bringing theory and practice in tourism together in the pursuit of socio-economic development.

 

 Key topics:

 

  • Sustainable Tourism Planning.
  • Destination and Event Development.
  • Tourism development in the Third World.
  • Tourist Consumer Behaviour

 

ESPM 545 Wetlands Management                                                 (3, 0, 3)

Wetlands perform vital functions in the water cycle and play a role in flood management, groundwater re-charge, water quality improvement, Carbon dioxide balance, micro-climatic effects, biodiversity and global warming. Wetlands also sustain the livelihoods of many hundreds of millions of people. However, wetlands all over the world are under threat and are being destroyed at an alarming rate. This loss has raised the awareness of the need for their conservation and wise use. Sound policies, strategies and management plans for sustainable use of wetlands must be based on solid knowledge and understanding of their ecological and socio-economic functions and processes.

 

 

 

Objectives:

The course will equip candidates to meet the professional challenges arising from the need wide range of factors and in particular be better able to:

  • Appreciate international trends in assessment and management as applied to wetlands systems (coastal and inland) ;
  • Better understand international and national obligations, commitments to integrated assessment and management as it relates to wetlands management;
  • Use integrated adaptive assessment and management tools and techniques to achieve continuous improvement in environmental outcomes in response to the effects of accelerated environmental change due to natural and human forcing factors on wetlands;
  • More effectively assess and manage complex agricultural, industrial, infrastructure and urban development proposals using statutory and best practice processes and procedures so as to meet the predicted effects of pressures and change on the natural and economic productivity of wetlands, and; 
  • Proactively address the implications of environmental change and the associated hazards and risks as they apply to environmental and natural resources management and the ecosystems services offered by wetlands.

Key Topics:

  • Concepts in wetland and river basin management (ecological, social and economic perspective)
  • Processes in wetland management, public participation, stakeholder involvement in decision making and conflict management.
  • Give an overview of the status of wetlands in Ghana
  • Introduce ecological basis and outline key methods for assessing wetland condition
  • Provide ecological and socio-economic context for wetland management
  • Illustrate wetland assessment, management and rehabilitation by the example of case studies

                             

ESPM 543 Soil and Coastal Erosion                                               (3, 0, 3)

Coastal erosion is an ecological hazard that has been occurring for centuries however rising sea levels and increasingly erratic weather patterns have the potential to advance the danger and destruction to much greater levels.  While the tumultuous wave action created by huge storms such as hurricanes is the most contributively to coastal erosion, the normal but repetitive wave action against the shoreline is just as destructive over the long-term.

Coastal erosion is a problem for those who live near coasts and for marine organisms living along the coast in bays, estuaries, and shallow waters. We have seen that beaches change with the seasons, and that tsunamis and storm surges can erode coasts. How important is coastal erosion? Are we making it better or worse? What causes erosion? Can it be prevented? Or do we want to allow erosion as a natural process?

 Issues such as erosion control, restoration of beaches and preparation for catastrophic events need to be dealt with by coastal communities. The response to the challenge varies from locality to locality, with local, state and federal governments each having a part in the final action plan that is implemented.

Objectives:

By the end of this course students will:

  • Gain understanding on the effects of human impacts, such as construction of artificial structures, mining of beach sand and offshore dredging on soil coastal erosion.

Key topics

  • Introduction to coastal zone management
  • Introduction to coastal flooding
  • Types of erosion
  • Causes of coastal and soil erosion with special emphasis on Ghana
  • Coastal land form
  • Flood defence

 

ESPM 519 Contamination and Remediation                                             (3, 0, 3)

With increasing urbanisation and industrialisation especially in developing countries, environmental policy makers and practitioners are confronted with dealing with the effects of the contamination of a variety of media including soil, water, and air. Shrinking urban spaces and changing technologies imposes a critical need for remediation of polluted media and its adaptive re-use. The course addresses the mechanisms and elements of contamination and prepares students to develop innovative practises in remedying such polluted media. The course introduces students to types of contamination including noise, radiation, air pollution and its effects on individuals and the environment. Students will be able to understand the sources or causes of these contaminants and the pathology of its impact on human and other living organisms. This course covers the modules such Noise Control, Environmental Noise.

Objectives:
-To provide participants with the basic knowledge on land contamination/remediation issues and management in Ghana, regionally and internationally.

Key topics:

  • Introduction to Land Contamination
  • Pollution Control Strategies
  • International Trends in Contaminated Land Management
  • Theory of sound radiation and propagation,
  • Noise and Vibration Measurement and Instrumentation as well as atmospheric contaminants
  • Human Health Risk Assessment
  • Ecological Risk Assessment
  • Risk Based Remediation

 

ESPM 523 Sectoral Management Strategies                                              (3, 0, 3)

The Sectoral Management Strategies course adopts an interdisciplinary perspective on environmental management issues. The course will outline the specific sectoral influences on the environment and examine the interrelation between the various sectors and the effect of environmental changes on their respective material conditions. The strategies, concepts, systems, tools, methods and technologies of “Preventive Environmental Management” will be explored in relation to the respective sectors. The course will highlight two critical sectors of society and social practice that are particularly impacted by changes in the environment and also have the greatest influence on the environment. These two sectors to be highlighted in this course are land and tourism. In both these sectors, the range of interventions is broad and requires in-depth discussions.

Land use planning is the term used for a branch of public policy which encompasses various disciplines which seek to order and regulate the use of land. It is the process by which decisions are made on future land uses and disposition of resources, facilities, and services with a view to securing the physical, economic and social efficiency, health, and well-being of urban and rural communities. It involves a comprehensive planning carried out by units of local government, for all areas under their jurisdiction, to identify the optimum uses of land and to serve as a basis for the adoption of zoning or other land use controls.

This course will explore the variety of ways in which legal and non-legal means are used to resolve conflicting land-use claims. For instance, who decides how the land of our country is used? Is it the landowner, the decision maker, or are others in the community entitled to decide? The course will also explain how multiple factors may lead to unsustainable land management practice and identify possible points of intervention for tackling land degradation problems.  Discussions will review the complex relationship between poverty and environmental degradation and explore strategies for sustainable land management in different ecological zones.

It is now widely recognised that tourism represents one of the world's largest industries, which can have far-reaching impacts (both positive and negative) on natural and cultural environments. Globally tourism has firmly established itself as an industry of major importance. More than 4% of the world economy is driven by tourism, and more than 8% of the jobs in the world are related to tourism. But tourism is more than just a powerful economic force. Tourism activities affect nature, the environment and landscapes of tourism destinations. Tourism also changes the life worlds of individuals and cultures worldwide. Furthermore, tourism is very sensitive to global transformations. Acts of terrorism, economic recession, epidemics and climate change have a strong impact in the travel behaviour of tourists and the prosperity of tourist destinations.  This course explores the complex relationships between tourism, the environment and development, with particular reference to the developing world.

 

 

Objectives:

By the end of course students will

  • understand sectoral dimensions of the environment and disaggregate environmental challenges into sectoral elements
  • utilise learned techniques and skills to design multi-sectoral integrated interventions
  • develop transferable skills in areas such as strategic management, project management and risk management
  • develop and implement strategic sector plans
  • evaluate and communicate the broader implications of multi-sectoral influences on the environment for related actions within national, regional and local political arrangements.
  • understand the techniques, processes and professional skills required to effectively manage growth and land use change.
  • understand the multi-sectoral regulatory framework governing the use of land
  • appreciate the interrelationships between tourism, environment and development within the prevailing multi-sectoral framework
  • design layered and tiered responses to environmental challenges of tourism and land use planning and management taking into account the distinctive political, social and economic settings of the developing countries

 

Key topics:

  • public administration and sectoral management
  • governance and decentralisation
  • Land use planning and management
  • Housing
  • Community development
  • Environmental laws
  • Theories of development- growth management strategies
  • Landscape Planning
  • Global tourism markets and flows
  • Sustainable Tourism Planning:
  • Destination and Event Development
  • Ecotourism
  • Economic and Social/cultural impact analysis of tourism on destination societies
  • Tourism Destination Marketing
  • Cultural and Social signification and their impacts on tourism
  • Heritage sites

 

ESPM 521      Environment and Politics                                                     (3, 0, 3)

Politics must not just be seen as a political order including the process of government, decision-making and administration, elections, machinery of political parties and the effort of groups to influence these political processes. It must also be seen in the positive light of being part of the way in which citizens’ aspirations are fulfilled and the achievement of the collective goals of the community. Students of environmental studies need to be aware of these political regimes since they have an impact on the fate of environmental politics.

This course is therefore intended to discuss the nature of social and environmental activism within any particular society, which is often influenced by the type of political regime under which it operates. The course provides a concise introduction to the study of environmental politics, explaining the key concepts, conflicts, political systems and the practices of policy-making. It specifically:

  • Examines a diverse range of environmental problems and policy solutions within different nations and cultures.
  • Discusses the differences in environmental politics between liberal democracies, military dictatorships and one party states, drawing on research conducted in relevant countries
  • Examines the connections between green social movements and the impact of globalization on NGOs as well as the rise in local environmental governance and international bureaucratic regimes and its impact upon the global environment.

 

Objectives:

Offers students a greater understanding of international, national and local environmental politics and looks at future developments for effective local and international environmental diplomacy

Key topics 

  • Defining politics and environmental studies and Concepts of environmental politics
  • Political regimes types and the environmental policies
  • Dimensions of Power and Models of Policy Processes
  • Environmental resistance, reform and radical critique
  • Different interpretation of the green economics
  • Role of religion in environmental thought
  • Principles of social ecology/ eco-anarchism
  • Feminism and the environment
  • Eco-socialism
  • Typology of green NGOs
  • Structure and operations of green NGOs (Friends of the Earth, Greenpeace, Conservation Foundations, etc) including issues of accountability
  • Green parties in liberal democracies including the role of the media
  • Attitudes of business towards environmental concerns
  • Environmental pricing and marketing
  • The Ghanaian laws and the environment
  • Local government and Agenda 21

 

 

 

ESP 550 Thesis                                                             (0,36,12)

Students are required to complete a research paper under the supervision of a supervisor/ research committee. The research paper will examine a significant topic in the field of Environmental Science, Policy and Management in Ghana. During the course work, students are expected to develop a research paper proposal for approval by the Head of Faculty.

The paper should be approximately 12,000 words to include:

  • Introduction
  • Problem statement
  • Status of research
  • Research Methodology
  • Findings, and
  • Conclusions and Recommendations

The research paper must be defended successfully before a Committee composed of the student's supervisor, a faculty member and an experienced professional.

ESP 552 Internship                                                                   (0,12,4)

Four weeks at the end of the first semester will be spent in internship in an institution performing functions related to the programme being studied by the student. As a rule students are not expected to do the internship in the organisations in which they are normally employed. The student will be assessed during the period of the internship.

The supervisor will submit a written report on the student

 

ESP 554 Study trips and Workshops           (0,12,4)

This session will help students to explore and understand contemporary Environmental issues and the efforts being made to address them.